Web Frameworks for Python
A Web framework is a collection of packages or modules which allow developers to write Web applications or services without having to handle such low-level details as protocols, sockets or process/thread management. As a developer using a framework, you typically write code which conforms to some kind of conventions, with the benefit being that most of the code can be concerned with the logic of the application, rather than working out how to process incoming network messages, spawn processes, work out which part of the application should be invoked, and so on.
Some frameworks can be considered moderately low-level in that they provide abstractions only for certain things (eg. incoming requests, outgoing responses, state handling), whereas other frameworks provide many more abstractions and mechanisms (eg. database access, presentation of Web pages). Since a non-trivial Web application will require a number of different kinds of abstractions, often stacked upon each other, those frameworks which attempt to provide a complete solution for applications are often known as "full-stack" frameworks in that they attempt to supply components for each layer in the stack.
These frameworks probably cover every area from providing a Web server through database access and persistence to templating and presentation:
- ["Cymbeline"] (1.3.1 Released 2005-12-09) application server framework, including functionality such as DB and arbitrary object pooling, web servers, persistant object repository, and a text console
- ["Django"] (0.95 Released 2006-07-29) Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design
- ["Karrigell"] (2.3 Released 2006-06-24) designed to be really simple to use : integrated web server and data base
[http://plone.org/ Plone] (2.5 Released 2006-06-17) Plone is a Python based content management system running on Zope application server.
[http://pythonpaste.org/ Python Paste] (0.4.1 Released 2006-02-18) brings consistency to Python web development and web application installation, providing tools for both developers and system administrators
[http://pylonshq.com/ Pylons] (0.9.1 Released 2006-08) Pylons is a lightweight web framework emphasizing flexibility and rapid development. It combines the very best ideas from the worlds of Ruby, Python and Perl, providing a structured but extremely flexible Python web framework. It's also one of the first projects to leverage the emerging WSGI standard, which allows extensive re-use and flexibility but only if you need it. Out of the box, Pylons aims to make web development fast, flexible and easy.
[https://www.mems-exchange.org/software/qp/ QP] a package for defining and running multiple web applications that are based on Durus for persistence, offering standard persistent Session and User classes, easy interactive database sessions, qpy for assembling html.
[http://spyce.sf.net/ Spyce] (2.1 released 2006-08-13)
[http://webpy.org/ web.py] (.137 Released 2006-03-27) Think about the ideal way to write a web app. Write the code to make it happen.
[http://www.webwareforpython.org/ Webware] (0.9.1 Released 2006-04-23) is a suite of Python packages and tools for developing object-oriented, web-based applications
[http://www.zope.org/ Zope] (2.9 Released 2006-01-07) server for building content management systems, intranets, portals, and custom applications
[http://www.pylucid.org PyLucid] (v0.7.0RC4 2006-08-30) PyLucid is a CMS, but you can easy make you Web-App. as a PyLucid Plugin and use some feature from PyLucid. Please look at [http://pylucid.org/index.py/DeveloperInfo/ developer info]
Some of these frameworks provide templating but not database access or persistence mechanisms. Others provide only elementary abstractions for things like requests, responses and sessions:
- ["Albatross"] (1.33 Released 2005-12-16) Albatross is a small and flexible Python toolkit for developing highly stateful web applications.
- ["Aquarium"] (2.2.1 Released 2005-04-21) offers convenient libraries, tight integration with Cheetah, adaptors for various Web environments
[http://divmod.org/trac/wiki/DivmodNevow Divmod Nevow] (0.7.0 Released 2005-12-02) A comprehensive library including a resource model encouraging the separation of application and presentation logic, a markup system with support for designer-friendly XHTML templates and pure-Python templates, and a robust AJAX-like API ([http://divmod.org/trac/wiki/DivmodNevow/Athena Divmod Athena]) which supports the creation of highly dynamic web pages in a structured manner.
["JonsPythonModules"] (1.06 Released 2004-04-11) is a set of simple yet powerful multi-threaded object-oriented CGI/FastCGI/mod_python/html-templating modules for Python
- ["JOTWeb2"] (1.10 Released 2005-12-30) developing dynamic web applications using HTML and TAL/TALES/METAL for templating
[http://www.myghty.org/ Myghty ] (1.0 Released 2006-01-27) Web application framework originally ported from HTML::Mason
[http://nick.borko.org/pse/index.html Python Servlet Engine] (3.0.4 Released 2006-02-17) PSE parses your templates into byte compiled "servlets" to produce web pages that run fast
[http://www.mems-exchange.org/software/quixote/ Quixote] (2.4 Released 2005-12-13) to develop dynamic web sites while using as much of their existing Python knowledge as possible
[http://snakelets.sourceforge.net/ Snakelets] (1.44 Released 2006-06-04) simple-to-use Python web application server
[http://trac.pytan.com/ Spark] Fast and lightweight web kit. Supports Mod_python, WSGI, Twisted.
["WebStack"] - very lightweight, requiring layers of extra technology to match full-stack frameworks in feature comparisons
Utility Modules and Components
There are some components developed outside the above frameworks which may be combined with some of these frameworks or employed directly in applications:
[http://www.chrisarndt.de/en/software/python/#auth Auth modules] - a module collection for authentication purposes
[http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/modules.shtml#dataenc Dataenc] - allows secure and time limited logins to be encoded into webpages for use with web applications
[http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/305288 HTTP basic authentication example]
Frameworks in Books
These frameworks are not apparently available for download, but are covered in various books:
Books and Articles
Steve Holden wrote a book on [http://pydish.holdenweb.com/pwp/ Python Web Programming]. The book from John Goerzen, [http://www.apress.com/book/bookDisplay.html?bID=363 Foundations of Python Network Programming], can also be useful. Finally, check out the Web Programming chapter in [http://starship.python.net/crew/wesc/cpp/ Core Python Programming] by Wesley Chun.
[http://www.tossed.org/modules.php?name=News&amp;file=article&amp;sid=12 Developing With Mod_Python] - an article on Mod_Python programming with Cheetah Templates and MySQL. Contains code samples.
The [http://benjiyork.com/quick_start Zope 3 Quick Start Guide] gives a short introduction to Zope 3.
Comparisons and Tests
[http://pyre.third-bit.com/pyweb/index.html PyWebOff: A bakeoff of Python web application frameworks], together with a [http://pyre.third-bit.com/pywebblog/ blog] giving thoughts on writing a single application in multiple different web frameworks.
The [http://colorstudy.com/docs/shootout.html Web Framework Shootout] also covers several of the frameworks listed in this document.
The above lists should be arranged in ascending alphabetical order - please respect this when adding new frameworks. The distinction made between "full-stack" and "lightweight" frameworks is difficult to make - please feel free to relocate frameworks to other lists, but please only do so if you actually know as a user or developer of that framework that the framework is miscategorised. When specifying release dates please use the format YYYY-MM-DD.
Notes on Editing Framework Pages
Opinions based on experience are welcome, but framework or templating system authors should sign their comments with InTheirOwnWords to admit to a certain bias.
The rather strict format of the main entries (described in WebProgrammingTemplateHelp) should not been seen as a limit. Feel free to add new pages containing examples, direct comparisons etc.
When adding new entries choose WebProgrammingTemplate when creating the page.