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Tkinter is Python's de-facto standard GUI (Graphical User Interface) package. It is a thin object-oriented layer on top of [[http://tcl.sourceforge.net/|Tcl/Tk]].
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Tkinter is not the only GuiProgramming toolkit for Python. It is however the most commonly used one. CameronLaird calls the yearly decision to keep TkInter "one of the minor traditions of the Python world."
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The Tkinter wiki: http://tkinter.unpythonic.net/wiki/
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TT£³I±²Áð¯Ivt]KÆc⫲³K#Úvö5+¥|¢ˆDÁ±‰ØÇà~
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== Tkinter Documentation ==
  * [[http://www.pythonware.com/library/tkinter/introduction/|An Introduction To Tkinter]] (online) by FredrikLundh
  * [[http://infohost.nmt.edu/tcc/help/pubs/tkinter/|Tkinter reference: a GUI for Python]] (online or [[http://infohost.nmt.edu/tcc/help/pubs/tkinter/tkinter.pdf|pdf]]) by John W. Shipman, New Mexico Tech Computer Center
  * [[ISBN:1884777813|Python and Tkinter Programming]] by John Grayson (see also GuiBooks). This book just recently came back into print on demand, see the publisher's website [[http://www.manning.com/grayson]]
  * [[http://modcopy.sourceforge.net/tips.html|Tips for Python/Tk]] by Andreas Balogh (about useful documentation, GUI builders and tips using Grid and HList widgets)
  * [[http://www.astro.washington.edu/users/rowen/TkinterSummary.html|Tkinter Summary]]
  * [[http://www.astro.washington.edu/users/rowen/ROTKFolklore.html|Tkinter Folklore]]
David McNab recommended the latter two as particularly "pythonic" in not insisting that readers think in Tcl.
 * [[http://www.ferg.org/thinking_in_tkinter/index.html|Thinking in Tkinter]] is an introduction to some basic Tkinter programming concepts.
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 * [[http://docs.python.org/lib/tkinter.html|Graphical User Interfaces with Tk]], a chapter from the [[http://docs.python.org/lib/lib.html|Python Library Reference]]..
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Ö@Y:word/styles.xml´›ßs›8Çßoæþ†÷Ô±Æ×LÝNš¶×Ì´½´NæžemMq 7Iÿú[­0!`7טڏV»ú®ìH¯ßÞő÷Sf¹ÒÉҟ¾8ö=™:TÉvéß\<úË÷r#’PD:‘Kÿ^æþÛ7þñúö,7÷‘Ì=0ägq°ôwƤg“I
ìd,ò:• <Üè,.³í$ُ}zè8F­U¤Ìýdv||êf2Š½Ù¨@¾×Á>–‰Áö“LF`Q'ùN¥ùÁÚ-ÅÚ­ÎÂ4ӁÌsp:Žœ½X¨¤43=iŠUé\oÌ
pfâz4±¦ ùô?őïÅÁÙå6љXG0x·Óÿ
Œ\¨ƒ÷r#ö‘Éíev•—Åþù¨“{·g"”Zúç™`ðöLŠÜœçJ\Ã(ƒÍXùOçI®ìÝýPy9ÈMåµw*TþÄZÏÁË?E´ôg'‡;–æîÍܽH$ÛÃ=™
ݬªü¥_ÞZƒÝ¥/²£Õ¹m8A—+®¥
 * [[http://www.tcl.tk/man/|Online Tcl/Tk Manual Pages]] - the official man pages at the Tcl Developer Xchange.
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Z-+ë&5ZÝ$°ZªF{ŒªšÊqŠ]7« r%@ðh
ñ&€Æoh
ñ&€†‹w?d<ñ&°ØÚPjjU¼ |
óU¿UśbkƒS»â7£CÝC+Ý_nGo
 * The New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology created its own Tkinter manual. It is available in [[http://www.nmt.edu/tcc/help/pubs/tkinter/|HTML]] and [[http://www.nmt.edu/tcc/help/pubs/tkinter.pdf|PDF]].
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¯p2¡Æ*¥ŽÀG¼  qěG¼  qěG¼  áâÝO¼ ,¶6”šZoˆ-%¨*Þ¾Âц'Ågýoo
 * [[http://www.tkdocs.com/tutorial/index.html|TkDocs Tutorial]], covers Python 3+ and Tk8.5, with easy to follow examples.
Line 257: Line 26:
 ¦x(ìèÔµ\¤XìÕX¥xXø
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&7Ç©qěàÑ8âM#ÞÐ8âM
ï~ÈxâM`±µ¡ÔÔªx@ly(AUñ&€ØÚð¤xãdüíâM °Ôo
 * The ''Tkinter Life Preserver'', by Matt Conway is still useful, though way out of date. It's the only document that explains how to read the Tcl/Tk manuals and translate the information there to Tkinter calls. [[http://www.python.org/doc/life-preserver/|HTML version]], converted by Ken Manheimer.
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 * The source: when all else fails: Read The Source, Luke!
        * ''Demo/tkinter/'' in the Python source distribution.
          This contains many helpful examples, including updated
          versions of Matt Conway's examples.
        * ''Lib/lib-tk/Tkinter.py'' in any Python distribution.
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ç0
 * Other prominent Tcl/Tk sites:

        * [[http://www.tcl.tk|Tcl Developer Xchange]]
        * [[http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl|Tcl project at SourceForge]]
        * [[http://sourceforge.net/foundry/tcl-foundry|Tcl foundry at SourceForge]](2008/09/07 lost link?)

== Tkinter Extensions ==

  * [[Pmw]] (http://pmw.sourceforge.net)
  * [[Tix]] (http://www.python.org/doc/current/lib/module-Tix.html)
  * [[TkZinc]] (http://www.tkzinc.org)
  * [[Tkinter3000]] (http://tkinter.effbot.org)
  * [[How Tkinter can exploit Tcl/Tk extensions]]

== Comments ==

MythDebunking: ''TkInter is ugly on Windows'' (http://wiki.tcl.tk/8646)


== Checking your Tkinter support ==

A good way to systematically check whether your Tkinter support is
working is the following.

Enter an interactive Python interpreter in a shell on an X console.

=== Step 1 - can _tkinter be imported? ===

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

{{{>>> import _tkinter # with underscore, and lowercase 't'}}}

 * If it works, go to step 2.

 * If it fails with "No module named _tkinter", your Python configuration needs to be modified to include this module (which is an extension module implemented in C). Do **not** edit Modules/Setup (it is out of date). You may have to install Tcl and Tk (when using RPM, install the -devel RPMs as well) and/or edit the setup.py script to point to the right locations where Tcl/Tk is installed. If you install Tcl/Tk in the default locations, simply rerunning "make" should build the _tkinter extension.

 * If it fails with an error from the dynamic linker, see above (for Unix, check for a header/library file mismatch; for Windows, check that the TCL/TK DLLs can be found).



=== Step 2 - can Tkinter be imported? ===

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

{{{>>> import Tkinter # no underscore, uppercase 'T' prior to V3.0; lowercase 't' from v3.0}}}

 * If it works, go to step 3.

 * If it fails with "No module named Tkinter", your Python configuration need to be changed to include the directory that contains Tkinter.py in its default module search path. You have probably forgotten to define TKPATH in the Modules/Setup file. A temporary workaround would be to find that directory and add it to your PYTHONPATH environment variable. It is the subdirectory named "lib-tk" of the Python library directory (when using Python 1.4 or before, it is named "tkinter").

=== Step 3 - does Tkinter work? ===

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

{{{>>> Tkinter._test() # note underscore in _test. Also, if you are using Python 3.1, try tkinter._test() instead.}}}

 * This should pop up a small window with two buttons. Clicking the "Quit" button makes it go away and the command return. If this works, you're all set. (When running this test on Windows, from Python run in a MS-DOS console, the new window somehow often pops up *under* the console window. Move it aside or locate the Tk window in the Taskbar.)

 * If this doesn't work, study the error message you get; if you can't see how to fix the problem, [[news:comp.lang.python|ask for help]].

Tkinter is Python's de-facto standard GUI (Graphical User Interface) package. It is a thin object-oriented layer on top of Tcl/Tk.

Tkinter is not the only GuiProgramming toolkit for Python. It is however the most commonly used one. CameronLaird calls the yearly decision to keep TkInter "one of the minor traditions of the Python world."

The Tkinter wiki: http://tkinter.unpythonic.net/wiki/

Tkinter Documentation

David McNab recommended the latter two as particularly "pythonic" in not insisting that readers think in Tcl.

  • Thinking in Tkinter is an introduction to some basic Tkinter programming concepts.

  • Graphical User Interfaces with Tk, a chapter from the Python Library Reference..

  • Online Tcl/Tk Manual Pages - the official man pages at the Tcl Developer Xchange.

  • The New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology created its own Tkinter manual. It is available in HTML and PDF.

  • TkDocs Tutorial, covers Python 3+ and Tk8.5, with easy to follow examples.

  • The Tkinter Life Preserver, by Matt Conway is still useful, though way out of date. It's the only document that explains how to read the Tcl/Tk manuals and translate the information there to Tkinter calls. HTML version, converted by Ken Manheimer.

  • The source: when all else fails: Read The Source, Luke!
    • Demo/tkinter/ in the Python source distribution.

      • This contains many helpful examples, including updated versions of Matt Conway's examples.
    • Lib/lib-tk/Tkinter.py in any Python distribution.

  • Other prominent Tcl/Tk sites:

Tkinter Extensions

Comments

MythDebunking: TkInter is ugly on Windows (http://wiki.tcl.tk/8646)

Checking your Tkinter support

A good way to systematically check whether your Tkinter support is working is the following.

Enter an interactive Python interpreter in a shell on an X console.

Step 1 - can _tkinter be imported?

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

>>> import _tkinter # with underscore, and lowercase 't'

  • If it works, go to step 2.
  • If it fails with "No module named _tkinter", your Python configuration needs to be modified to include this module (which is an extension module implemented in C). Do **not** edit Modules/Setup (it is out of date). You may have to install Tcl and Tk (when using RPM, install the -devel RPMs as well) and/or edit the setup.py script to point to the right locations where Tcl/Tk is installed. If you install Tcl/Tk in the default locations, simply rerunning "make" should build the _tkinter extension.
  • If it fails with an error from the dynamic linker, see above (for Unix, check for a header/library file mismatch; for Windows, check that the TCL/TK DLLs can be found).

Step 2 - can Tkinter be imported?

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

>>> import Tkinter # no underscore, uppercase 'T' prior to V3.0; lowercase 't' from v3.0

  • If it works, go to step 3.
  • If it fails with "No module named Tkinter", your Python configuration need to be changed to include the directory that contains Tkinter.py in its default module search path. You have probably forgotten to define TKPATH in the Modules/Setup file. A temporary workaround would be to find that directory and add it to your PYTHONPATH environment variable. It is the subdirectory named "lib-tk" of the Python library directory (when using Python 1.4 or before, it is named "tkinter").

Step 3 - does Tkinter work?

Try the following command at the Python prompt:

>>> Tkinter._test() # note underscore in _test. Also, if you are using Python 3.1, try tkinter._test() instead.

  • This should pop up a small window with two buttons. Clicking the "Quit" button makes it go away and the command return. If this works, you're all set. (When running this test on Windows, from Python run in a MS-DOS console, the new window somehow often pops up *under* the console window. Move it aside or locate the Tk window in the Taskbar.)
  • If this doesn't work, study the error message you get; if you can't see how to fix the problem, ask for help.

TkInter (last edited 2022-02-08 22:05:48 by martinmiller)

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