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CallPolicy allows boost.python to deal with raw references and pointers. Different policies specifies different strategies of managing object ownership.

with_custodian_and_ward<M,N>

Keeps N-th argument as long as M-th is alive.

Use of template parameters M,N:

For example, container operation append usualy uses with_custodian_and_ward<1,2> which means keep argument alive while container itself is alive.

with_custodian_and_ward_postcall<M,N>

ties lifetimes of the arguments and results

M,N same as before but also you can use 0 - result

return_internal_reference

Builds a Python object around a pointer to the C++ result object (which must have a class_<> wrapper somewhere), and applies some lifetime management to keep the "self" object alive as long as the Python result is alive. NULL pointer returning as None.

return_value_policy<T>

with T one of:

reference_existing_object

naïve (dangerous) approach

boost.python/ResultConverterGenerator which can be used to wrap C++ functions returning a reference or pointer to a C++ object.

When the wrapped function is called, the value referenced by its return value is not copied.
A new Python object is created which contains an unowned U* pointer to the referent of the wrapped function's return value, and no attempt is made to ensure that the lifetime of the referent is at least as long as that of the corresponding Python object.

This class is used in the implementation of return_internal_reference. Also NULL pointer returning as None.

copy_non_const_reference

copy_const_reference

BoostPython v1 approach

manage_new_object

BoostPython/ResultConverterGenerator which can be used to wrap C++ functions returning a pointer to an object allocated with a new-expression and expecting the caller to take responsibility for deleting that C++ object from heap. boost.python will do it as part of Python object destruction.

Use case:

T* factory() { return new T(); }

class_<T>("T");

def("Tfactory", factory, return_value_policy<manage_new_object>() );

return_by_value

boost.python/ResultConverterGenerator which can be used to wrap C++ functions returning any reference or value type.
The return value is copied into a new Python object.

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