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Web Frameworks for Python

A Web framework is a collection of packages or modules which allow developers to write Web applications or services without having to handle such low-level details as protocols, sockets or process/thread management. As a developer using a framework, you typically write code which conforms to some kind of conventions, with the benefit being that most of the code can be concerned with the logic of the application, rather than working out how to process incoming network messages, spawn processes, work out which part of the application should be invoked, and so on.

Some frameworks can be considered moderately low-level in that they provide abstractions only for certain things (eg. incoming requests, outgoing responses, state handling), whereas other frameworks provide many more abstractions and mechanisms (eg. database access, presentation of Web pages). Since a non-trivial Web application will require a number of different kinds of abstractions, often stacked upon each other, those frameworks which attempt to provide a complete solution for applications are often known as "full-stack" frameworks in that they attempt to supply components for each layer in the stack.

Full-Stack Frameworks

These frameworks probably cover every area from providing a Web server through database access and persistence to templating and presentation:

Lightweight Frameworks

Some of these frameworks provide templating but not database access or persistence mechanisms. Others provide only elementary abstractions for things like requests, responses and sessions:

Utility Modules and Components

There are some components developed outside the above frameworks which may be combined with some of these frameworks or employed directly in applications:

Frameworks in Books

These frameworks are not apparently available for download, but are covered in various books:

Books and Articles

Comparisons and Tests

Editorial Notes

The above lists should be arranged in ascending alphabetical order - please respect this when adding new frameworks. The distinction made between "full-stack" and "lightweight" frameworks is difficult to make - please feel free to relocate frameworks to other lists, but please only do so if you actually know as a user or developer of that framework that the framework is miscategorised. When specifying release dates please use the format YYYY-MM-DD.

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