Buffer Protocol

This page proposes (now begins to document) a design for a Jython equivalent to the CPython buffer protocol. A good place to start is this worked example (pdf) that motivated the current design.

What is the Buffer API?

The Jython Buffer API is an interface you can use in Java when accessing or implementing certain built-in types, or your own. It is the basis of the type memoryview with which it shares many features.

In CPython, certain objects are based on an underlying memory array or buffer. The CPython designers judged it desirable to be able to access that buffer directly, without intermediate copying. CPython provides this at the C level in the form of the buffer protocol. This is used heavily in the implementation of some core types and standard library modules.

The capability is just as useful in Jython, and has been implemented for version 2.7.

Accessing an Object that has the Buffer API

Objects flag their willingness to provide a buffer by implementing the following interface:

   1 public interface BufferProtocol {
   2     Buffer getBuffer(int flags);   
   3 }

Here is a simple example of the API used, adapted from the implementation of bytearray:

   1     protected void init(BufferProtocol value) throws PyException {
   2         // Get the buffer view
   3         try (PyBuffer view = value.getBuffer(PyBUF.FULL_RO)) {
   4             // Create storage for the bytes
   5             this.storage = new byte[view.getLen()];
   6             this.size = storage.length;
   7             this.offset = 0
   8             // Have the view drop them in
   9             view.copyTo(this.storage, this.offset);
  10         }
  11     }

The reason for the try-with-resources construct is to ensure the view is released when the client has finished with it. (Some objects change behaviour for the lifetime of the exported view. Notably, a bytearray cannot be resized while exporting.)

The flags argument indicates the buffer characteristics wanted by the consumer, and what kind of data organisation the consumer can cope with. The return is an implementation of PyBuffer appropriate to the storage organisation of the exporter. In the example, the consumer says it can cope with any organisation (FULL), but that it will only be reading (RO).

The business about exporter storage organisation is only relevant if you are going to access the actual byte array. Here, the client says it can cope with any organisation, because it is only going to use the buffer's own copyTo method. Every buffer implementation has to understand its own storage and provide copyTo, charAt, storeAt, and several other methods.

This interface is quite rich, but the Javadoc is thorough. In fact, the interface is defined in two stages: a part that is independent of the type of unit in the buffer, and a part that is definite that the units are bytes.

The type-agnostic part of the interface is PyBUF:

   1 public interface PyBUF {
   3     boolean isReadonly();
   5     // Access to buffer (client responsible for indexing)
   6     int getNdim();
   7     int[] getShape();
   8     int getItemsize();
   9     int getLen();
  10     int[] getStrides();
  11     int[] getSuboffsets();
  12     boolean isContiguous(char order);
  14     // Constants taken from CPython object.h in v3.3
  15     static final int MAX_NDIM = 64;
  16     static final int WRITABLE = 0x0001;
  17     static final int SIMPLE = 0;
  18     static final int FORMAT = 0x0004;
  19     static final int ND = 0x0008;
  20     static final int STRIDES = 0x0010 | ND;
  21     static final int C_CONTIGUOUS = 0x0020 | STRIDES;
  22     static final int F_CONTIGUOUS = 0x0040 | STRIDES;
  23     static final int ANY_CONTIGUOUS = 0x0080 | STRIDES;
  24     static final int INDIRECT = 0x0100 | STRIDES;
  25     static final int CONTIG = ND | WRITABLE;
  26     static final int CONTIG_RO = ND;
  27     static final int STRIDED = STRIDES | WRITABLE;
  28     static final int STRIDED_RO = STRIDES;
  29     static final int RECORDS = STRIDES | WRITABLE | FORMAT;
  30     static final int RECORDS_RO = STRIDES | FORMAT;
  31     static final int FULL = INDIRECT | WRITABLE | FORMAT;
  32     static final int FULL_RO = INDIRECT | FORMAT;
  33     static final int NAVIGATION = SIMPLE | ND | STRIDES | INDIRECT;
  34     static final int IS_C_CONTIGUOUS = C_CONTIGUOUS & ~STRIDES;
  35     static final int IS_F_CONTIGUOUS = F_CONTIGUOUS & ~STRIDES;
  37 }

The byte-oriented part of the interface is PyBuffer. For the most part, you can ignore the difference between PyBUF and PyBuffer and think of all the methods as belonging to PyBuffer:

   1 public interface PyBuffer extends PyBUF, BufferProtocol, AutoCloseable {
   3     // Access to buffer contents (index calculation done by buffer)
   4     byte byteAt(int index) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
   5     int intAt(int index) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
   6     void storeAt(byte value, int index) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
   7     byte byteAt(int... indices) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
   8     int intAt(int... indices) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
   9     void storeAt(byte value, int... indices) throws IndexOutOfBoundsException;
  11     // Bulk operations (index calculation done by buffer)
  12     void copyTo(byte[] dest, int destPos);
  13     void copyTo(int srcIndex, byte[] dest, int destPos, int length);
  14     void copyFrom(byte[] src, int srcPos, int destIndex, int length);
  15     void copyFrom(PyBuffer src);
  17     // Releasing a buffer or getting another (or a slice)
  18     void release();
  19     void close(); // Alias for release()
  20     boolean isReleased();
  21     @Override PyBuffer getBuffer(int flags); // from BufferProtocol
  22     public PyBuffer getBufferSlice(int flags, int start, int length);
  23     public PyBuffer getBufferSlice(int flags, int start, int length, int stride);
  25     // Access to buffer (client responsible for indexing)
  26     public static class Pointer {
  27         public byte[] storage;
  28         public int offset;
  29         public Pointer(byte[] storage, int offset) {
  30             this.storage = storage;
  31             this.offset = offset;
  32         }
  33     }
  35     PyBuffer.Pointer getBuf();
  36     PyBuffer.Pointer getPointer(int index);
  37     PyBuffer.Pointer getPointer(int... indices);
  39     // Interpreting the bytes
  40     String getFormat();
  41 }

Notice that an object that implements PyBuffer must itself implement the BufferProtocol. A buffer can give you a buffer, which may just be itself or could be an independent object, depending on the implementation.

Note that PyBuffer extends the AutoCloseable interface, so that you can use the try-with-resources construct to manage buffer lifetime. (This was added shortly after Java 7 became the minimum platform.)

Adding the Buffer API to an Object

The core package org.python.core only defines the interfaces. Several PyBuffer implementations that could be exported by object implementations are provided in org.python.core.buffer. The place to start is with one of these basic types:

Buffer Type

Suitable for ...


read-only 1D array of bytes


1D array of bytes


Java String (representing bytes)

These could all be extended or for a more sophisticated behaviour, consider extending BaseBuffer.

Converting from CPython

Similarities with CPython

Differences from CPython